References

Acai berry

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2010/6/the-science-behind-acai
  • Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7915-
  • Mertens-Talcott SU, Rios J, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich açai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7796-802.
  • Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, Ou B, Huang D, Owens J, Agarwal A, Jensen GS, Hart AN, Shanbrom E. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai). J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Nov 1;54(22):8604-10.

Acetyl L-carnitine

  • Saheki T., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University. [Carnitine as a vitamin-like biofactor]. Nippon Rinsho 1999 Oct;57(10):2270-5.  
  • Mangano NG, et al. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on ethanol consumption and alcohol abstinence syndrome in rats. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2000;26(1):7-12.  
  • Ando S, et al. Enhancement of learning capacity and cholinergic synaptic function by carnitine in aging rats. J Neurosci Res 2001 Oct 15;66(2):266-71.  
  • Pettegrew JW, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer’s disease and geriatric depression. Mol Psychiatry 2000 Nov;5(6):616-32.  
  • Sorbi S, et al. Double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial with L-acetylcarnitine in patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia. Clin Neuropharmacol 2000 Mar-Apr;23(2):114-8.

Alpha-lipoic acid

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2007/10/nu_lipoic_acid
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2000/2/products2
  • Packer L, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997;22(1-2):359-78. 
  • Da Ros R, Assaloni R, Ceriello A. Molecular targets of diabetic vascular complications and potential new drugs. Curr Drug Targets. 2005 Jun;6(4):503-9. 
  • Ceriello A. New insights on oxidative stress and diabetic complications may lead to a “causal” antioxidant therapy. Diabetes Care. 2003 May;26(5):1589-96. 
  • Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau KJ, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid. A 3-week multicentre randomized controlled trial (ALADIN Study). Diabetologia. 1995 Dec;38(12):1425-33.

AMPK

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/ss/ampk-belly-fat
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2018/ss/turn-on-your-bodys-youth-switch
  • Stenesen D, Suh JM, Seo J, et al. Adenosine nucleotide biosynthesis and AMPK regulate adult life span and mediate the longevity benefit of caloric restriction in flies. Cell Metab. 2013 Jan 8;17(1):101-12.

Amla

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2009/2/preventing-vascular-disease 
  • Scartezzini P, Speroni E. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jul;71(1-2):23-43. 
  • Siddiqui IA, Adhami VM, Afaq F, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. Modulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-pathways by tea polyphenols in human prostate cancer cells. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Feb 1;91(2):232-42. 
  • Manjunatha S, Jaryal AK, Bijlani RL, Sachdeva U, Gupta SK. Effect of chyawanprash and vitamin C on glucose tolerance and lipoprotein profile. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001 Jan;45(1):71-9. 
  • Scartezzini P, Speroni E. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jul;71(1-2):23-43. 
  • Ali R, Alexander KP. Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in older adults: a review of the evidence. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2007 Mar;5(1):52-63. . 
  • Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S. Effect of bioactive tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis on ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Phytomedicine. 2002 Mar;9(2):171-4. 
  • Damodaran M, Nair KR. A tannin from the Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) with a protective action on ascorbic acid. Biochem J. 1936 Jun;30(6):1014-20. . 
  • Doncheva NI, Nikolov KV, Vassileva DP. Lipid-modifying and pleiotropic effects of gemfibrozil, simvastatin and pravastatin in patients with dyslipidemia. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2006;48(3-4):56-61.

Antioxidants

  • Semba RD, Blaum C, Guralnik JM, et al. Carotenoid and vitamin E status are associated with indicators of sarcopenia among older women living in the community. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2003 Dec;15(6):482-7.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2006/2/report_
  • Harman, D. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. The University of California Radiation Laboratory Report, No. 3078. 1955 Jul 15; Univ. of California, Berkley, CA.
  • Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7915-22.

Apigenin

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  • Fitoterapia. 2000;71(Suppl. 1):S117-S123. 
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  • Mol Carcinog. 2019;58(6):996-1007. 
  • Geroscience. 2017;39(2):161-173. 
  • Patel D, Shukla S, Gupta S. Apigenin and cancer chemoprevention: progress, potential and promise (review). Int J Oncol. 2007;30(1):233-45. Klaunig JE, Kamendulis LM, Hocevar BA. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in carcinogenesis. Toxicol Pathol. 2010;38(1):96-109. 
  • Kiraly O, Gong G, Olipitz W, et al. Inflammation-induced cell proliferation potentiates DNA damage-induced mutations in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2015;11(2):e1004901. 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2017/1/how-vegetable-extracts-protect-against-cancer

Arginine

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/wellness/supplements/l-arginine-benefits
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2020/4/boost-nitric-oxide-to-improve-circulation
  • Bruce, Debra Fulghum, PhD. "Arginine: Heart Benefits and Side Effects." WebMD, https://www.webmd.com/heart/arginine-heart-benefits-and-side-effects
  • "L-arginine." Mayo Clinic, February 2021, https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-l-arginine/art-20364681

Ashwagandha

  • Deshpande A, Irani N, Balkrishnan R, et al. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on sleep quality in healthy adults. Sleep Med. 2020 Aug;72:28-36.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/7/ashwagandha-brain-benefits
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/2/better-night-sleep

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2017/12/update-astaxanthin
  • Guerin M, Huntley ME, Olaizola M. Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. Trends Biotechnol. 2003;21(5):210-6
  • Choi S, Koo S. Efficient syntheses of the keto-carotenoids canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and astacene. J Org Chem. 2005;70(8):3328-31.
  • Hussein G, Sankawa U, Goto H, et al. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. J Nat Prod. 2006;69(3):443-9.
  • Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Astaxanthin, oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Future Cardiol. 2009;5(4):333-42.
  • Zhang L, Wang H. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin. Mar Drugs. 2015;13(7):4310-30.

B 12 vitamin

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/5/vitamin-b-12-brain-protection
  • Grober U, Kisters K, Schmidt J. Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance. Nutrients. 2013 Dec 12;5(12):5031-45. 
  • Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, et al. Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly. Neurology. 2008 Sep 9;71(11):826-32. 
  • Kobe T, Witte AV, Schnelle A, et al. Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr;103(4):1045-54. 
  • Schaffner A, Li X, Gomez-Llorente Y, et al. Vitamin B12 modulates Parkinson's disease LRRK2 kinase activity through allosteric regulation and confers neuroprotection. Cell Res. 2019 Apr;29(4):313-29. 
  • O'Leary F, Samman S. Vitamin B12 in health and disease. Nutrients. 2010 Mar;2(3):299-316. 
  • Nohr D, Biesalski HK. Vitamin B12. Reference Module in Food Science: Elsevier; 2016. 
  • Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114302/. Accessed February 10, 2021.  
  • Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441923/. Accessed February 10, 2021.

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/wellness/fitness/workout-supplements-that-work
  • AbuMoh'd, Mohammad Fayiz et al. "Effects of Oral Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) Intake on Muscular and Central Fatigue During an Incremental Exercise." Journal of Human Kinetics, March 2020, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32269649/
  • Arroyo-Cerezo, Alejandra et al. "Intake of branched chain amino acids favors post-exercise muscle recovery and may improve muscle function: optimal dosage regimens and consumption conditions." The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, February 2021, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33586928/
  • Bonvini, A. et al. "Immunomodulatory role of branched-chain amino acids." Nutrition Reviews, November 2018, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30124936/
  • Doma, Kenji et al. "The effect of branched-chain amino acid on muscle damage markers and performance following strenuous exercise: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism, October 2021, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34612716/
  • Ismaiel, Abdulrahman et al. "Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids on Parameters Evaluating Sarcopenia in Liver Cirrhosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Frontiers in nutrition, January 2022, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35155535/
  • Khemtong, Chutimon et al. "Does Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) Supplementation Attenuate Muscle Damage Markers and Soreness after Resistance Exercise in Trained Males? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials." Nutrients, May 2021, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34072718/

Beta-carotene

  • Grotto, D. 101 Foods That Could Save Your Life. New York: Bantam Bell; 2008. 
  • Lila MA. Anthocyanins and Human Health: An In Vitro Investigative Approach. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2004;(5): 306–13.
  • Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/nah/10foods_bad.html. Accessed December 28, 2009. 
  • Bovell B. Sweet Potato: a review of its past, present and future role in human nutrition. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2007;52:1-59. 
  • Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/symptoms/. Accessed December 28, 2009. 6. Grodstein F, Kang JH, Glynn RJ, Cook NR, 
  • Gaziano JM. A randomized trial of beta carotene supplementation and cognitive function in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 12;167(20):2184-90. 
  • Washio M, Mori M, Sakauchi F, et al. Risk Factors for kidney cancer in a Japanese population: findings from the JACC study. J Epidemiol. 2005 Jun; 15 Suppl 2:S203-11.

Beta-glucans

  • J Immunotoxicol. 2008 Jan;5(1):47-57.
  • www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/immune/the_immune_system.pdf. J Am Coll Nutr.1997 Feb;16(1):46-5.
  • www.cancer.org/docroot/MED/content/MED_2_1x_Cancer_Deaths_Drop_for_Second_Consecutive_Year.asp.
  • www.cancer.org/docroot/ETO/content/ETO_5_3X_Shiitake_Mushroom.asp?sitearea=ETO.
  • Dev Biol Stand. 1992;77:191-7. Hum Cell. 1990 Jun;3(2):124-30. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Oct 25;797:285-7.
  • Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009 Mar 15;128(1-3):60-6.
  • Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 May Suppl 1;40(5):S353.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2009/12/the-immune-enhancing-benefits-of-beta-glucans

Bifidobacterium

  • Arboleya S, Watkins C, Stanton C, et al. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:1204.
  • Finegold SM, Li Z, Summanen PH, et al. Xylooligosaccharide increases bifidobacteria but not lactobacilli in human gut microbiota. Food Funct. 2014;5(3):436-45.
  • Na MH, Kim WK. Effects of Xylooligosaccharide Intake on Fecal Bifidobacteria, Lactic acid and Lipid Metabolism in Korean Young Women. Korean J Nutr. 2007;40(2):154-61.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2018/1/role-of-bifidobacteria-in-long-term-health

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2006/11/aas h
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2013/7/uncovering-the-broad-spectrum-protection-of-anthocyanins
  • Persson IA, Persson K, Andersson RG. Effect of Vaccinum myrtillus and its polyphenols on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 10;57(11):4626-9.
  • Takikawa M, Inoue S, Horio F, Tsuda T. Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice. J Nutr. 2010 Mar;140(3):527-33.
  • Eating more berries may reduce cognitive decline in the elderly: flavonoid-rich blueberries and strawberries offer most benefit. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2012 Aug;27(5):358.
  • Kalea AZ, Lamari FN, Theocharis AD, et al. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption affects the composition and structure of glycosaminoglycans in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Feb;17(2):109-16.

  • Mahabir S, Spitz MR, Barrera SL, et al. Dietary boron and hormone replacement therapy as risk factors for lung cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167(9):1070-80.
  • Gallardo-Williams MT, Chapin RE, King PE, et al. Boron supplementation inhibits the growth and local expression of IGF-1 in human prostate adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) tumors in nude mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2004;32(1):73-8. 3.
  • Gorustovich AA, Steimetz T, Nielsen FH, et al. A histomorphometric study of alveolar bone modelling and remodelling in mice fed a boron-deficient diet. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53(7):677-82.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/11/what-is-boron
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/2/better-night-sleep
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2015/11/boron-reduces-prostate-cancer-risk
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2023/8/challenges-of-male-aging

Boswellia

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2014/12/boswellia-new-studies-show-effective-pain-relief
  • Anglin R, Yuan Y, Moayyedi P, Tse F, Armstrong D, Leontiadis GI. Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with or without concurrent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jun;109(6):811-9.
  • Rakoff-Nahoum S. Why cancer and inflammation? Yale J Biol Med. 2006 Dec;79(3-4):123-30. 
  • Siddiqui MZ. Boswellia serrata, a potential antiinflammatory agent: an overview. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May;73(3):255-61. 
  • Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Rosenberg L, Anderson TE, Mitchell AA. Recent patterns of medication use in the ambulatory adult population of the United States: the Slone survey. JAMA. 2002 Jan 16;287(3):337-44.

  • https://www.quicksilverscientific.com/all-products/bitters-no-9/
  • Burdock. Review of Natural Products. Facts & Comparisons [database online]. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Health Inc; October 2014.

C vitamin

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2015/11/the-link-between-vitamin-c-and-optimal-immunity
  • Falcone M, Russo A, Cangemi R, et al. Lower mortality rate in elderly patients with community-onset pneumonia on treatment with aspirin. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4(1). 
  • Ruiz LA, Zalacain R, Capelastegui A, et al. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in elderly and very elderly patients: host- and pathogen-related factors, process of care, and outcome. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Aug;69(8):1018-24.
  • Levy R, Shriker O, Porath A, Riesenberg K, Schlaeffer F. Vitamin C for the treatment of recurrent furunculosis in patients with imparied neutrophil functions. J Infect Dis. 1996 Jun;173(6):1502-5.

Calcium

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/1999/3/cover1
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/1998/11/products

Carnitine (L-carnitine)

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2013/3/carnitine-restores-cellular-function Ames BN. Optimal micronutrients delay mitochondrial decay and age-associated diseases. Mech Ageing Dev. 2010 Jul-Aug;131(7-8):473-9.
  • Noland RC, Koves TR, Seiler SE, et al. Carnitine insufficiency caused by aging and overnutrition compromises mitochondrial performance and metabolic control. J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 21;284(34):22840-52.
  • Abdul HM, Calabrese V, Calvani M, Butterfield DA. Acetyl-L-carnitine-induced up-regulation of heat shock proteins protects cortical neurons against amyloid-beta peptide 1-42-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: implications for Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2006 Aug 1;84(2):398-408.
  • Terman A, Kurz T, Navratil M, Arriaga EA, Brunk UT. Mitochondrial turnover and aging of long-lived postmitotic cells: the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010 Apr;12(4):503-35.
  • Dutta D, Calvani R, Bernabei R, Leeuwenburgh C, Marzetti E. Contribution of impaired mitochondrial autophagy to cardiac aging: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. Circ Res. 2012 Apr 13;110(8):1125-38. 
  • Maasen JA. Mitochondria, body fat and type 2 diabetes: what is the connection? Minerva Med. 2008 Jun;99(3):241-51. Wang CH, Wang CC, Wei YH. 
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction in insulin insensitivity: implication of mitochondrial role in type 2 diabetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Jul;1201:157-65. 
  • Bernard A, Rigault C, Mazue F, Le Borgne F, Demarquoy J. L-carnitine supplementation and physical exercise restore age-associated decline in some mitochondrial functions in the rat. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Oct;63(10):1027-33.
  • Tanaka Y, Sasaki R, Fukui F, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation restores decreased tissue carnitine levels and impaired lipid metabolism in aged rats. J Lipid Res. 2004 Apr;45(4):729-35.
  • Pesce V, Fracasso F, Cassano P, Lezza AM, Cantatore P, Gadaleta MN. Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation to old rats partially reverts the age-related mitochondrial decay of soleus muscle by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis. Rejuvenation Res. 2010 Apr-Jun;13(2-3):148-51.

Capsaicin

  • Joseph A, Maliakkal Balakrishnan A, Natinga Mulakal J, et al. A green approach for the sustained-intestinal delivery of red chili (Capsicum annum L) extracted capsaicinoids with enhanced bioavailability. Journal of Functional Foods. 2021 2021/10/01/;85:104658.
  • Lv J, Qi L, Yu C, et al. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2015 Aug 4;351:h3942.
  • Shi Z, Riley M, Taylor AW, et al. Chilli consumption and the incidence of overweight and obesity in a Chinese adult population. Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Jul;41(7):1074-9.
  • Zheng J, Zheng S, Feng Q, et al. Dietary capsaicin and its anti-obesity potency: from mechanism to clinical implications. Biosci Rep. 2017 Jun 30;37(3).
  • Joseph MA, John Ph DF, Thomas MJV, et al. Influence of a Novel Food-Grade Formulation of Red Chili Extract (Capsicum annum) on Overweight Subjects: Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Diet Suppl. 2021;18(4):387-405.
  • Whiting S, Derbyshire E, Tiwari BK. Capsaicinoids and capsinoids. A potential role for weight management? A systematic review of the evidence. Appetite. 2012 Oct;59(2):341-8.
  • Varghese S, Kubatka P, Rodrigo L, et al. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Jun;68(4):392-401.

Ceramides

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2018/8/plant-ceramides-reduce-skin-wrinkles
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2013/1/ceramides-nourish-skin-from-within 
  • Rogers J, Harding C, Mayo A, Banks J, Rawlings A. Stratum corneum lipids: the effect of ageing and the seasons. Arch Dermatol Res. 1996 Nov;288(12):765-70. 
  • Guillou S, Ghabri S, Jannot C, Gaillard E, Lamour I, Boisnic S. The moisturizing effect of a wheat extract food supplement on women's skin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2011 Apr;33(2):138-43.

Chromium

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2011/2/take-control-of-your-blood-sugar-levels-with-targeted-nutrient-compounds
  • Vincent JB. Quest for the molecular mechanism of chromium action and its relationship to diabetes. Nutr Rev. 2000 Mar;58(3 Pt 1):67-72.
  • Chen WY, Chen CJ, Liu CH, Mao FC. Chromium supplementation enhances insulin signalling in skeletal muscle of obese KK/HlJ diabetic mice. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Apr;11(4):293-303.
  • Pohl M, Mayr P, Mertl-Roetzer M, et al. Glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a disease-specific enteral formula: stage II of a randomized, controlled multicenter trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Jan-Feb;33(1):37-49.
  • Albarracin CA, Fuqua BC, Evans JL, Goldfine ID. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008 Jan-Feb;24(1):41-51.
  • Ryan GJ, Wanko NS, Redman AR, Cook CB. Chromium as adjunctive treatment for type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Jun;37(6):876-85.
  • Cefalu WT, Rood J, Pinsonat P, et al. Characterization of the metabolic and physiologic response to chromium supplementation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2010 May;59(5):755-62.
  • Frauchiger MT, Wenk C, Colombani PC. Effects of acute chromium supplementation on postprandial metabolism in healthy young men. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Aug;23(4):351-7.
  • Jain SK, Patel P, Rogier K. Trivalent chromium inhibits protein glycosylation and lipid peroxidation in high glucose-treated erythrocytes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 Jan-Feb;8(1-2):238-41.
  • Keszthelyi Z, Past T, Koltai K, Szabo L, Mozsik G. Chromium (III)-ion enhances the utilization of glucose in type-2 diabetes mellitus. Orv Hetil. 2003 Oct 19;144(42):2073-6.
  • Geohas J, Daly A, Juturu V, Finch M, Komorowski JR. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Mar;333(3):145-53.
  • Jain SK, Rains JL, Croad JL. High glucose and ketosis (acetoacetate) increases, and chromium niacinate decreases, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion and oxidative stress in U937 monocytes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007Oct;9(10):1581-90.

Cistanche

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/4/cistanche-benefits-immune-system
  • Chen W, Lin HR, Wei CM, et al. Echinacoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside from Cistanche deserticola, extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans and protects from Abeta-induced toxicity. Biogerontology. 2018;19(1):47-65.
  • Colon G, Saccon T, Schneider A, et al. The enigmatic role of growth hormone in age-related diseases, cognition, and longevity. GeroScience. 2019;41(6):759-774.
  • Wu CJ, Chien MY, Lin NH, et al. Echinacoside Isolated from Cistanche tubulosa Putatively Stimulates Growth Hormone Secretion via Activation of the Ghrelin Receptor. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2019;24(4).
  • Wu CJ, Chien MY, Lin NH, et al. Echinacoside Isolated from Cistanche tubulosa Putatively Stimulates Growth Hormone Secretion via Activation of the Ghrelin Receptor. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2019;24(4).
  • Zhang B, Yang LL, Ding SQ, et al. Anti-Osteoporotic Activity of an Edible Traditional Chinese Medicine Cistanche deserticola on Bone Metabolism of Ovariectomized Rats Through RANKL/RANK/TRAF6-Mediated Signaling Pathways. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2019;10:1412.
  • Wang D, Wang H, Gu L. The Antidepressant and Cognitive Improvement Activities of the Traditional Chinese Herb Cistanche. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2017;2017:3925903.
  • Lei H, Wang X, Zhang Y, et al. Herba Cistanche (Rou Cong Rong): A Review of Its Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2020;68(8):694-712.
  • Jiang Y, Tu PF. Analysis of chemical constituents in Cistanche species. Journal of chromatography A. 2009;1216(11):1970-1979.

Coenzyme Q10

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2008/2/alleviating-congestive-heart-failure-with-coenzyme-q10
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2007/ss/enhanced-absorption-ubiquinol-coq10
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2023/1/coq10-in-aging
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/6/coq10-reverses-skin-aging
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/6/coq10-more-than-just-heart-health
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2013/1/coq10-the-longevity-factor
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/ss/coq10-continues-to-impress
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/wellness/aging/coq10-benefits-for-women

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2020/12/oral-collagen-improves-skin-and-joint-health
  • Barati M, Jabbari M, Navekar R, et al. Collagen supplementation for skin health: A mechanistic systematic review. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020 May 21.
  • Kim DU, Chung HC, Choi J, et al. Oral Intake of Low-Molecular-Weight Collagen Peptide Improves Hydration, Elasticity, and Wrinkling in Human Skin: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients. 2018 Jun 26;10(7).

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  • Boldogh I, Kruzel ML. Colostrinin: an oxidative stress modulator for prevention and treatment of age-related disorders. J Alzheimers Dis. 2008 Apr;13(3):303-21. 
  • Janusz M, Zablocka A. Colostrinin: a proline-rich polypeptide complex of potential therapeutic interest. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2013 Nov 3;59(1):4-11.

Cranberry

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  • J Am Dental Assoc. 1998;129:1719-23.
  • J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Sep;18(9):567-79.

Creatine

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2014/7/creatine-reduces-markers-of-aging
  • Hausmann ON, Fouad K, Wallimann T, Schwab ME. Protective effects of oral creatine supplementation on spinal cord injury in rats. Spinal Cord. 2002 Sep;40(9):449-56.
  • Klopstock T, Elstner M, Bender A. Creatine in mouse models of neurodegeneration and aging. Amino Acids. 2011 May;40(5):1297-303.
  • Moreira PI, Carvalho C, Zhu X, Smith MA, Perry G. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a trigger of Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Jan;1802(1):2-10.
  • Meredith GE, Totterdell S, Petroske E, Santa Cruz K, Callison RC, Jr., Lau YS. Lysosomal malfunction accompanies alpha-synuclein aggregation in a progressive mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Res. 2002 Nov 22;956(1):156-65.
  • Stack EC, Matson WR, Ferrante RJ. Evidence of oxidant damage in Huntington’s disease: translational strategies using antioxidants. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Dec;1147:79-92.

Cruciferous vegetables

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/8/cancer-fighting-properties-and-cruciferous-vegetables
  • Sita G, Graziosi A, Hrelia P, et al. Sulforaphane Causes Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Glioblastoma U87MG and U373MG Cell Lines under Hypoxic Conditions. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Oct 18;22(20).
  • Su X, Jiang X, Meng L, et al. Anticancer Activity of Sulforaphane: The Epigenetic Mechanisms and the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:5438179.
  • Chinnakannu K, Chen D, Li Y, et al. Cell cycle-dependent effects of 3,3’-diindolylmethane on proliferation and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2009 Apr;219(1):94-9.
  • Kong JS, Yoo SA, Kim HS, et al. Inhibition of synovial hyperplasia, rheumatoid T cell activation, and experimental arthritis in mice by sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Jan;62(1):159-70.
  • Brennan P, Hsu CC, Moullan N, et al. Effect of cruciferous vegetables on lung cancer in patients stratified by genetic status: a mendelian randomisation approach. Lancet. 2005 Oct 29;366(9496):1558-60.
  • Basu A, Haldar S. Anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on human pancreatic cancer cells is linked to death receptor activation and RasGAP/Rac1 down-modulation. Int J Oncol. 2009 Sep;35(3):593-9.

Curcumin

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/12/longevity-effects-curcumin
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2020/2/major-curcumin-enhancement

D vitamin

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/4/vitamin-d-improves-vascular-function
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/7/vitamin-d-magnesium-connection
  • Cannell JJ, Hollis BW. Use of vitamin D in clinical practice. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Mar;13(1):6-20.
  • Rosanoff A, Dai Q, Shapses SA. Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status? Adv Nutr. 2016 Jan;7(1):25-43.
  • Erem S, Atfi A, Razzaque MS. Anabolic effects of vitamin D and magnesium in aging bone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Oct;193:105400.
  • Reddy P, Edwards LR. Magnesium Supplementation in Vitamin D Deficiency. Am J Ther. 2019 Jan/Feb;26(1):e124-e32.
  • Wintermeyer E, Ihle C, Ehnert S, et al. Crucial Role of Vitamin D in the Musculoskeletal System. Nutrients. 2016 Jun 1;8(6).

Dandelion

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/5/dandelion-superfoods 
  • Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011 Aug;23(8):766-e333.
  • Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Aug;58:30-6.
  • Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:619560.
  • Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2012;60(2):205-12.

Digestive enzymes

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2013/1/are-you-obtaining-the-proper-enzymes
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2013/1/are-you-obtaining-the-proper-enzymes
  • Wooldridge JL, Heubi JE, Amaro-Galvez R, ET AL. EUR-1008 pancreatic enzyme replacement is safe and effective in patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency. J Cyst Fibros. 2009 Dec;8(6):405-17. 
  • Epub 2009 Aug 15. 7. Hammer HF. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: diagnostic evaluation and replacement therapy with pancreatic enzymes. Dig Dis. 2010;28(2):339-43. 
  • Epub 2010 Sep 1. 8. Available at: http://chemistry-today.teknoscienze.com/pdf/MU%20OMEGA3- 08.pdf Accessed October 1, 2012.
  • Dominguez-Munoz JE. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: when is it indicated, what is the goal and how to do it? Adv Med Sci. 2011;56(1):1-5.

Diosmin

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2012/5/reducing-dangerous-varicose-veins-phlebotonics Gohel MS, Davies AH. 
  • Pharmacological agents in the treatment of venous disease: an update of the available evidence. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2009 Jul;7(3):303-8. 10. 
  • Martinez, MJ, Bonfill, X, Moreno, RM, Vargas, E, Capella, D. Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD003229. 11. 
  • Ramelet AA, Boisseau MR, Allegra C et al. Veno-active drugs in the management of chronic venous disease. An international consensus statement: current medical position, prospective views and final resolution. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2005;33(4):309-19.

DHEA

  • Bentley C, Hazeldine J, Greig C, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone: a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment and rehabilitation of the traumatically injured patient. Burns Trauma. 2019;7:26.
  • Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT, Yen SS. A prospective study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, mortality, and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1986 Dec 11;315(24):1519-24.
  • Veronese N, Trevisan C, De Rui M, et al. Serum Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Older Men and Women: The Pro.V.A Study. Can J Diabetes. 2016 Apr;40(2):158-63.
  • Jankowski CM, Wolfe P, Schmiege SJ, et al. Sex-specific effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on bone mineral density and body composition: A pooled analysis of four clinical trials. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2019 Feb;90(2):293-300.

Vitamin E

  • Trivedi JS, Krill SL, Fort JJ. Vitamin E as a human skin penetration enhancer. Eur J Phann Sci. 1995;3:241-3.
  • Brigelius-Floh R, Traber MG. Vitamin E: function and metabolism. FASEB. 1999 Jul;13(10):11455.
  • Clarke MW, Burnett JR, Croft KD. Vitamin E in human health and disease. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2008;45(5):417-50.
  • Shibata A, Nakagawa K, Kawakami Y, Tsuzuki T, Miyazawa T. Suppression of gamma-tocotrienol on UVB induced inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes and HR-1 hairless mice via inflammatory mediators multiple signaling. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jun 9;58(11):7013-20.

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2020/12/immune-support-for-quick-recovery
  • Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, et al. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res. 2004 Mar-Apr;32(2):132-40.
  • Hawkins J, Baker C, Cherry L, et al. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. Complement Ther Med. 2019 Feb;42:361-5.
  • Strugala P, Loi S, Bazanow B, et al. A Comprehensive Study on the Biological Activity of Elderberry Extract and Cyanidin 3-O-Glucoside and Their Interactions with Membranes and Human Serum Albumin. Molecules. 2018 Oct 8;23(10):2566.
  • Roschek B, Jr., Fink RC, McMichael MD, et al. Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry. 2009 Jul;70(10):1255-61.

EPA/DHA

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/3/omega-3-levels-healthy-years
  • Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459368/. Accessed September 13, 2021.
  • Bernasconi AA, Wiest MM, Lavie CJ, et al. Effect of Omega-3 Dosage on Cardiovascular Outcomes: An Updated Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression of Interventional Trials. Mayo Clin Proc. 2021 Feb;96(2):304-13.
  • Titova OE, Sjogren P, Brooks SJ, et al. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids is linked to gray matter volume and cognitive function in elderly. Age (Dordr). 2013 Aug;35(4):1495-505.
  • Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.
  • Simopoulos AP. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 2;8(3):128.

Echinacea

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/11/echinacea-full-strength
  • Brinkeborn RM, Shah DV, Degenring FH. Echinaforce and other Echinacea fresh plant preparations in the treatment of the common cold. A randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 1999 Mar;6(1):1-6. 
  •  Available at: https://www.consumerlab.com/reviews/echinacea-review/echinacea/. Accessed August 12, 2022. Dalby-Brown L, Barsett H, Landbo AK, et al. Synergistic antioxidative effects of alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysaccharide fractions from Echinacea purpurea on in vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 30;53(24):9413-23. 
  • Ritchie MR, Gertsch J, Klein P, et al. Effects of Echinaforce(R) treatment on ex vivo-stimulated blood cells. Phytomedicine. 2011 Jul 15;18(10):826-31. 
  • Park SJ, Lee M, Kim D, et al. Echinacea purpurea Extract Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity In Vivo by Upregulating MHC II and Th1-type CD4(+) T Cell Responses. J Med Food. 2021 Oct;24(10):1039-49. 
  • Brousseau M, Miller SC. Enhancement of natural killer cells and increased survival of aging mice fed daily Echinacea root extract from youth. Biogerontology. 2005 2005/05/01;6(3):157-63. 
  • Aucoin M, Cardozo V, McLaren MD, et al. A systematic review on the effects of Echinacea supplementation on cytokine levels: Is there a role in COVID-19? Metabol Open. 2021 Sep;11:100115. 
  • Hall H, Fahlman MM, Engels HJ. Echinacea purpurea and mucosal immunity. Int J Sports Med. 2007 Sep;28(9):792-7.

Fiber

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2016/4/bridging-the-fiber-gap
  • Tian J, Ma J, Ma K, et al. beta-Glucan enhances antitumor immune responses by regulating differentiation and function of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43(5):1220-30.
  • Qi C, Cai Y, Gunn L, et al. Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate and soluble yeast-derived beta-glucans. Blood. 2011;117(25):6825-36.
  • Goodridge HS, Reyes CN, Becker CA, et al. Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a ‘phagocytic synapse’. Nature. 2011;472(7344):471-5.

Fisetin

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2020/ss/fisetin-a-senolytic-for-longevity
  • Grynkiewicz G, Demchuk OM. New Perspectives for Fisetin. Front Chem. 2019;7:697.
  • Pal HC, Pearlman RL, Afaq F. Fisetin and Its Role in Chronic Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;928:213-44.
  • Yousefzadeh MJ, Zhu Y, McGowan SJ, et al. Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan. EBioMedicine. 2018 Oct;36:18-28.
  • Ahmad A, Ali T, Park HY, et al. Neuroprotective Effect of Fisetin Against Amyloid-Beta-Induced Cognitive/Synaptic Dysfunction, Neuroinflammation, and Neurodegeneration in Adult Mice. Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Apr;54(3):2269-85.
  • Alikatte K, Palle S, Rajendra Kumar J, et al. Fisetin Improved Rotenone-Induced Behavioral Deficits, Oxidative Changes, and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rat Modl of Parkinson’s Disease. J Diet Suppl. 2020 Jan 29:1-15.
  • Chen C, Yao L, Cui J, et al. Fisetin Protects against Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Neuroinflammation in Aged Mice. Cerebrovasc Dis . 2018;45(3-4):154-61.
  • Maher P. Modulation of multiple pathways involved in the maintenance of neuronal function during aging by fisetin. Genes Nutr. 2009 Dec;4(4):297-307.
  • Maher P, Akaishi T, Abe K. Flavonoid fisetin promotes ERK-dependent long-term potentiation and enhances memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 31;103(44):16568-73.
  • Zhang L, Wang H, Zhou Y, et al. Fisetin alleviates oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury via the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Neurochem Int. 2018 Sep;118:304-13.
  • Wang L, Cao D, Wu H, et al. Fisetin Prolongs Therapy Window of Brain Ischemic Stroke Using Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2019 Jan-Dec;25:1076029619871359.

Flaxseed oil

  • Psota TL, Gebauer SK, Kris-Etherton P. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Aug 21;98(4A):3i-18i.
  • Donaldson MS. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. Nutr J. 2004 Oct 20;3:19.
  • Tham DM, Gardner CD, Haskell WL. Clinical review 97: Potential health benefits of dietary phytoestrogens: a review of the clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic evidence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2223-35.
  • Dahl WJ, Lockert EA, Cammer AL, Whiting SJ. Effects of flax fiber on laxation and glycemic response in healthy volunteers. J Med Food. 2005;8(4):508-11.

French oak wood

  • Ippolito E, Belcaro G, Luzzi R, et al. Robuvit(R): improvement of fatigue in medical convalescence. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 May;58(5):678-83. 
  • Belcaro G, Saggino A, Cornelli U, et al. Improvement in mood, oxidative stress, fatigue, and insomnia following supplementary management with Robuvit(R). J Neurosurg Sci. 2018 Aug;62(4):423-7. 
  • Orszaghova Z, Waczulikova I, Burki C, et al. An Effect of Oak-Wood Extract (Robuvit(R)) on Energy State of Healthy Adults-A Pilot Study. Phytother Res. 2015 Aug;29(8):1219-24. 
  • Belcaro G, Cornelli U, Luzzi R, et al. Improved management of primary chronic fatigue syndrome with the supplement French oak wood extract (Robuvit(R)): a pilot, registry evaluation. Panminerva Med. 2014 Mar;56(1):63-72. 
  • Available at: https://www.robuvit.com/fileadmin/robuvit/robuvit_brochure_EN_161_WEB.pdf. Accessed July 17, 2020.
  • Natella F, Leoni G, Maldini M, et al. Absorption, metabolism, and effects at transcriptome level of a standardized French oak wood extract, Robuvit, in healthy volunteers: pilot study. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jan 15;62(2):443-53. 
  • Frank J. The ribosome--a macromolecular machine par excellence. Chem Biol. 2000 Jun;7(6):R133-41. 
  • Thomson E, Ferreira-Cerca S, Hurt E. Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis at a glance. J Cell Sci. 2013 Nov 1;126(Pt 21):4815-21. 
  • Yamashita D, Sano Y, Adachi Y, et al. hDREF regulates cell proliferation and expression of ribosomal protein genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Mar;27(6):2003-13. 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2014/12/new-option-for-chronic-fatigue-syndrome 
  • https://www.lifeextensioneurope.com/energy-renew

Garcinia cambogia

  • https://www.lifeextensioneurope.com/garcinia-hca
  • Lipids Health Dis 2016 Vol. 15 Issue 1 Pages 136 
  • J Med Food 2013 Vol. 16 Issue 6 Pages 529-37

Garlic

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2017/4/super-foods-garlic
  • Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139(1):1-15. J Nutr. 2016;146(2):433s-6s.
  • Available at: http://tinyurl.com/6dbv5ax Accessed January 17, 2017.
  • Phytomedicine. 2016;23(11):1127-33.
  • Available at: http://tinyurl.com/dg4poo. Accessed January 17, 2017.

  • Yao W, Ding G, Shen X, et al. A hemodynamics model describing cardiac deficiency of qi(vital energy). Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2002 Jan;19(1):53-6. 
  • Wang JR, Zhou H, Yi XQ, Jiang ZH, Liu L. Total ginsenosides of Radix Ginseng modulates tricarboxylic acid cycle protein expression to enhance cardiac energy metabolism in ischemic rat heart tissues. Molecules. 2012;17(11):12746-57. 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2014/2/beat-fatigue-and-boost-atp-production-with-powerful-herbal-duo 
  • Lee NH, Yoo SR, Kim HG, Cho JH, Son CG. Safety and tolerability of Panax ginseng root extract: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in healthy Korean volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Nov;18(11):1061-9. 
  • Choi JY, Woo TS, Yoon SY, et al. Red ginseng supplementation more effectively alleviates psychological than physical fatigue. J Ginseng Res. 2011 Sep;35(3):331-8. 
  • Tadano T, Nakagawasai O, Niijima F, Tan-No K, Kisara K. The effects of traditional tonics on fatigue in mice differ from those of the antidepressant imipramine: a pharmacological and behavioral study. Am J Chin Med. 2000;28(1):97-104. 
  • Song YB, An YR, Kim SJ, et al. Lipid metabolic effect of Korean red ginseng extract in mice fed on a high-fat diet. J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Jan 30;92(2):388-96. 
  • Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained ‘mentally demanding’ tasks. J Psychopharmacol. 2006 Nov;20(6):771-81. echinacea
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2018/9/extinguish-fires-of-chronic-inflammation

L-glutamine

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/vitamins-supplements/item00345/l-glutamine
  • https://www.lifeextensioneurope.com/l-glutamine
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/5/what-is-glutamine 
  • Legault Z, Bagnall N, Kimmerly DS. The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Oct;25(5):417-26. 
  • Cruzat V, Macedo Rogero M, Noel Keane K, et al. Glutamine: Metabolism and Immune Function, Supplementation and Clinical Translation. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 23;10(11). 
  • Kim MH, Kim H. The Roles of Glutamine in the Intestine and Its Implication in Intestinal Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 May 12;18(5).

Glutathione

  • Sekhar RV, Patel SG, Guthikonda AP, et al. Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):847-53.
  • Ansari MA, Scheff SW. Oxidative stress in the progression of Alzheimer disease in the frontal cortex. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;69(2):155-67.
  • Holmay MJ, Terpstra M, Coles LD, et al. N-Acetylcysteine boosts brain and blood glutathione in Gaucher and Parkinson diseases. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2013 Jul-Aug;36(4):103-6.

Glycine

  • https://www.lifeextensioneurope.com/glycine-1000-mg-100-vegetarian-capsules
  • J Biosci. 2009;34(6):853-72. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:1716701. PLoS Genet. 2019;15(3):e1007633. 
  • Aging Cell. 2019;18(3):e12953. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;118(2):145-8. em>Front Neurol. 2012;3:61. 
  • Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019;92:387-404.
  • Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;23(8):931-40. 
  • Amino Acids. 2018;50(1):29-38. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2015;298(3):538-45. 
  • Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017;20(4):237-242. Clin Nutr. 2016;35(5):1118-26. 
  • Ochsner J. 2018;18(1):81-87. Clin Sci (Lond). 2014;126(1):19-29.
  • Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;91(10):855-60. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;89(12):899-910. 
  • Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006;9(1):26-31. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;5(1) 
  • Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1997;97(2):185-98. 
  •  Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:1072969. 
  • J Physiol. 2010;588(Pt 6):995-1009.

Grape seed extract

  • Carini M, Aldini G, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Maffei Facino R. UVB-induced hemolysis of rat erythrocytes: protective effect of procyanidins from grape seeds. Life Sci. 2000 Sep 1;67(15):1799-814.
  • Katic M, Kahn CR. The role of insulin and IGF-1 signaling in longevity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005 Feb;62(3):320-43.
  • Solari F, Bourbon-Piffaut A, Masse I, Payrastre B, Chan AM, Billaud M. The human tumour suppressor PTEN regulates longevity and dauer formation in Caenohabditis elegans. Oncogene. 2005 Jan 6;24(1):20-7.
  • Preuss HG, Montamarry S, Echard B, Scheckenbach R, Bagchi D. Long-term effects of chromium, grape seed extract, and zinc on various metabolic parameters of rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Jul;223(1-2):95-102.
  • Preuss HG. Effects of glucose/insulin perturbations on aging and chronic disorders of aging: the evidence. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997 Oct;16(5):397-403.
  • Vogels N, Nijs IM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effect of grape-seed extract on 24 h energy intake in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr;58(4):667-73.
  • Pinent M, Blay M, Blade MC, Salvado MJ, Arola L, Ardevol A. Grape seed-derived procyanidins have an antihyperglycemic effect in streptoxotocin-induced diabetic rats and insulinomimetic activity in insulin-sensitive cell lines. Endocrinology. 2004 Nov;145(11):4985-90.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2005/7/report_grapeseed

Green tea

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2006/1/abs
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/3/green-tea-for-brain-health
  • Scholey A, Downey LA, Ciorciari J, et al. Acute neurocognitive effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Appetite. 2012 Apr;58(2):767-70.

  • Neurochem Int. 2013 Feb;62(3):324-9.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/vitamins-supplements/item23062/5-htp-l-5-hydroxytryptophan

HMB

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2018/11/prevent-muscle-loss-and-frailty
  • Bruckbauer A, Zemel MB. Effects of dairy consumption on SIRT1 and mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes and muscle cells. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011;8:91.
  • Feige JN, Lagouge M, Canto C, et al. Specific SIRT1 activation mimics low energy levels and protects against diet-induced metabolic disorders by enhancing fat oxidation. Cell Metab. 2008;8(5):347-58.
  • Nissen S, Sharp RL, Panton L, et al. beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutr. 2000;130(8):1937-45.
  • Nissen SL, Abumrad NN. Nutritional role of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB). The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 1997;8(6):300-11.
  • Smith HJ, Mukerji P, Tisdale MJ. Attenuation of proteasome-induced proteolysis in skeletal muscle by {beta}-hydroxy-{beta}-methylbutyrate in cancer-induced muscle loss. Cancer Res. 2005;65(1):277-83.
  • Smith HJ, Wyke SM, Tisdale MJ. Mechanism of the attenuation of proteolysis-inducing factor stimulated protein degradation in muscle by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. Cancer Res. 2004;64(23):8731-5.
  • Wilkinson DJ, Hossain T, Limb MC, et al. Impact of the calcium form of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate upon human skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Clin Nutr. 2017.

Horse chestnut

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/1998/8/products
  • Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1986 Aug 29;111(35):1321-9
  • Ottillinger B, Greeske K. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency--chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2001;1:5. 
  • Epub 2001 Dec 7. Diehm C, Trampisch HJ, Lange S, Schmidt C. Comparison of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Lancet. 1996 Feb 3;347(8997):292-4.

Iodine

  • Verheesen RH, Schweitzer CM. Iodine deficiency, more than cretinism and goiter. Med Hypotheses. 2008 Nov;71(5):645-8.
  • Dasgupta PK, Liu Y, Dyke JV. Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States. Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Feb 15;42(4):1315-23.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2011/10/the-silent-epidemic-of-iodine-deficiency

Inositol

  • Chatree, S. et al. "Role of Inositols and Inositol Phosphates in Energy Metabolism." Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). November 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663797/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663797/
  • Concerto, C. et al. "Neurobiology and Applications of Inositol in Psychiatry: A Narrative Review." Current Issues in Molecular Biology. February 2023. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9955821/>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9955821/
  • DiNicolantonio, J.J. and J.H. O'Keefe. "Myo-inositol for insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes." Open Heart. March 2022. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8896029/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8896029/
  • Nas, K. and L. Tűű. "A comparative study between myo-inositol and metformin in the treatment of insulin-resistant women." European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. June 2017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28724173/
  • Pezza, M. and V. Carlomagno. "Inositol in women suffering from acne and PCOS: a randomized study." Glob Dermatol. 2017. https://www.oatext.com/Inositol-in-women-suffering-from-acne-and-PCOS-a-randomized-study.php
  • Soldat-Stanković, V. et al. The effect of metformin and myoinositol on metabolic outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: role of body mass and adiponectin in a randomized controlled trial. J Endocrinol Invest. 2022 March. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34665453/
  • Zarezadeh, M. et al. "Inositol supplementation and body mass index: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials." Obesity Science & Practice. October 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9159559/

Iron

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2012/3/excess-iron-brain-degeneration
  • Tuomainen TP, Loft S, Nyyssönen K, Punnonen K, Salonen JT, Poulsen HE. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA. Free Radic Res. 2007 Mar;41(3):324-8.
  • Masini A, Ceccarelli D, Giovannini F, Montosi G, Garuti C, Pietrangelo A. Iron-induced oxidant stress leads to irreversible mitochondrial dysfunctions and fibrosis in the liver of chronic iron-dosed gerbils. The effect of silybin. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2000 Apr;32(2):175-82.
  • Killilea DW, Atamna H, Liao C, Ames BN. Iron accumulation during cellular senescence in human fibroblasts in vitro. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2003 Oct;5(5):507-16.

Irvingia

  • Lipids Health Dis. 2009 Mar 2;8:7
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2010/2/calorie-restriction-irvingia-mitochondria-saw-palmetto

Vitamin K

  • Booth SL, Broe KE, Gagnon DR, et al. Vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):512-6.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2004/3/all-about-vitamin-k
  • Kanazawa I. Osteocalcin as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism. World J Diabetes. 2015 Dec 25;6(18):1345-54.
  • Halder M, Petsophonsakul P, Akbulut AC, et al. Vitamin K: Double Bonds beyond Coagulation Insights into Differences between Vitamin K1 and K2 in Health and Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 19;20(4):896.
  • Walther B, Karl JP, Booth SL, et al. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply: the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K requirements. Adv Nutr. 2013 Jul 1;4(4):463-73.
  • Marles RJ, Roe AL, Oketch-Rabah HA. US Pharmacopeial Convention safety evaluation of menaquinone-7, a form of vitamin K. Nutr Rev. 2017 Jul 1;75(7):553-78.
  • Machado-Fragua MD, Hoogendijk EO, Struijk EA, et al. High dephospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein concentrations, a plasma biomarker of vitamin K, in relation to frailty: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Eur J Nutr. 2020 Apr;59(3):1243-51.
  • Ferland G. Vitamin K and the nervous system: an overview of its actions. Adv Nutr. 2012 Mar 1;3(2):204-12.
  • Kiely A, Ferland G, Ouliass B, et al. Vitamin K status and inflammation are associated with cognition in older Irish adults. Nutr Neurosci. 2020 Aug;23(8):591-9.

K & D vitamins

  • The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2015;3(4):286-295.
  • British Journal of Nutrition. 1999;81(1):45-49.
  • American journal of health-system pharmacy. 2005;62(15):1574-1581.
  • Nutrition journal. 2012;11(1):93. British Journal of Nutrition. 1996;75(1):121-127.
  • Archives of internal medicine. 2010;170(13):1135-1141. Neurology. 2012;79(13):1397-1405.
  • J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019:105400. Current opinion in pharmacology. 2010;10(4):482-496.
  • The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2004;89:387-392
  • https://www.lifeextensioneurope.com/vitamins-d-k-eu

Krill oil

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2011/11/krill-oil-optimizes-multimodal-arthritis-control Valensa. 
  • FlexPro MD Clinical Trial Overview and Results. (Data on File.) 2011. Krill oil. Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2010 Apr;15(1):84-6.
  • Chan KC, Mong MC, Yin MC. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells. J Food Sci. 2009 Sep;74(7):H225-31.
  • Kim YJ, Kim YA, Yokozawa T. Protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis of high-glucose-exposed proximal tubular epithelial cells by astaxanthin. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 14;57(19):8793-7.
  • Choi SK, Park YS, Choi DK, Chang HI. Effects of astaxanthin on the production of NO and the expression of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008 Dec;18(12):1990-6.

L. acidophilus

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/9/probiotics-women-health
  • Ejtahed HS, Mohtadi-Nia J, Homayouni-Rad A, Niafar M, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Mofid V. Probiotic yogurt improves antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutrition. 2012 May;28(5):539-43.
  • Oberreuther-Moschner DL, Jahreis G, Rechkemmer G, Pool-Zobel BL. Dietary intervention with the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum 913 modulates the potential of human faecal water to induce damage in HT29clone19A cells. Br J Nutr. 2004 Jun;91(6):925-32.
  • Esteve E, Ricart W, Fernández-Real JM. Gut microbiota interactions with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: did gut microbiote co-evolve with insulin resistance? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 Sep;14(5):483-90.

Lactoferrin

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2023/4/lactoferrin-regenerative-effects
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/11/what-is-lactoferrin
  • Antoshin AA, Shpichka AI, Huang G, et al. Lactoferrin as a regenerative agent: The old-new panacea? Pharmacol Res. 2021 May;167:105564.
  • Amini AA, Nair LS. Lactoferrin: a biologically active molecule for bone regeneration. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(8):1220-9. 
  • Chen XW, Li YH, Zhang MJ, et al. Lactoferrin ameliorates aging-suppressed osteogenesis via IGF1 signaling. J Mol Endocrinol. 2019 Jul;63(1):63-75. 
  • Bharadwaj S, Naidu AG, Betageri GV, et al. Milk ribonuclease-enriched lactoferrin induces positive effects on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2009 Sep;20(9):1603-11.
  • Zhou Y, Zeng Z, Zhang W, et al. Lactotransferrin: a candidate tumor suppressor-Deficient expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and inhibition of NPC cell proliferation by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Int J Cancer. 2008 Nov 1;123(9):2065-72.
  • Wiig ME, Dahlin LB, Friden J, et al. PXL01 in sodium hyaluronate for improvement of hand recovery after flexor tendon repair surgery: randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e110735.
  • Yan D, Kc R, Chen D, et al. Bovine lactoferricin-induced anti-inflammation is, in part, via up-regulation of interleukin-11 by secondary activation of STAT3 in human articular cartilage. J Biol Chem. 2013 Nov 1;288(44):31655-69.
  • Liu M, Fan F, Shi P, et al. Lactoferrin promotes MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells proliferation via MAPK signaling pathways. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Feb;107(Pt A):137-43.
  • Hou JM, Xue Y, Lin QM. Bovine lactoferrin improves bone mass and microstructure in ovariectomized rats via OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012 Oct;33(10):1277-84.
  • Lyons TE, Miller MS, Serena T, et al. Talactoferrin alfa, a recombinant human lactoferrin promotes healing of diabetic neuropathic ulcers: a phase 1/2 clinical study. Am J Surg. 2007 Jan;193(1):49-54.
  • Pattamatta U, Willcox M, Stapleton F, et al. Bovine lactoferrin stimulates human corneal epithelial alkali wound healing in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Apr;50(4):1636-43.
  • Tang L, Wu JJ, Ma Q, et al. Human lactoferrin stimulates skin keratinocyte function and wound re-epithelialization. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Jul;163(1):38-47.

Liposomes

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/wellness/vitamins/liposomal-vitamin-c-benefits
  • Granger M. et al. "Dietary Vitamin C in Human Health." Adv Food Nutr Res., February 2016, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29477224/
  • Gundermann, Karl-Josef et al. "Essential phospholipids in fatty liver: a scientific update." Clin Exp Gastroenterol., May 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4861608/
  • Joseph, Ashil et al. "Surface-engineered liposomal particles of calcium ascorbate with fenugreek galactomannan enhanced the oral bioavailability of ascorbic acid: a randomized, double-blinded, 3-sequence, crossover study." Royal Society of Chemistry, November 2021, https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2021/ra/d1ra06483e
  • Rumbold Alice et al. "Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, September 2015, https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004072.pub3/full 
  • "Liposomal hydrogel vitamin C pharmacokinetics." Akay Internal Study. Data on file. 2021. 
  • "Vitamin C — Supplemental Forms." Linus Pauling Institute, https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-C/supplemental-forms

Licorice

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2014/8/green-tea-estrogen-tocotrienols-and-reish
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2006/12/report_stomach
  • Iran J Pharm Res. 2012 Spring;11(2):541-8

L-theanine

  • Williams JL, Everett JM, D’Cunha NM, et al. The Effects of Green Tea Amino Acid L-Theanine Consumption on the Ability to Manage Stress and Anxiety Levels: a Systematic Review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2020 Mar;75(1):12-23.
  • Evans M, McDonald AC, Xiong L, et al. A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study to Investigate the Efficacy of a Single Dose of AlphaWave((R)) L-Theanine on Stress in a Healthy Adult Population. Neurol Ther. 2021 Dec;10(2):1061-78.
  • Turkozu D, Sanlier N. L-theanine, unique amino acid of tea, and its metabolism, health effects, and safety. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 May 24;57(8):1681-7.
  • Nathan PJ, Lu K, Gray M, et al. The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):21-30.
  • Tian X, Sun L, Gou L, et al. Protective effect of l-theanine on chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in mice. Brain Res. 2013 Mar 29;1503:24-32.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/12/stress-relief-l-theanine
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/11/l-theanine-lowers-stress
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2016/3/brain-benefits-of-l-theanine

Lycopene

  • Hedayati N, Naeini MB, Nezami A, et al. Protective effect of lycopene against chemical and natural toxins: A review. Biofactors. 2019 Jan;45(1):5-23.
  • Obermuller-Jevic UC, Olano-Martin E, Corbacho AM, et al. Lycopene inhibits the growth of normal human prostate epithelial cells in vitro. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3356-60.
  • Chen P, Zhang W, Wang X, et al. Lycopene and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Aug;94(33):e1260.
  • Wang Y, Jacobs EJ, Newton CC, et al. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Int J Cancer. 2016 Jun 15;138(12):2846-55.

Lysine

  • https://www.lifeextensioneurope.com/l-lysine-620-mg-100-vegetarian-capsules J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14:36. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25(9):1954-65. Nutrition. 1992;8(6):400-5.
  • Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2003;31(1):35-46. Exp Eye Res. 1993;57(5):623-8.
  • Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1997;34(6):518-23. Exp Eye Res. 1998;67(5):597-601.
  • Int J Biol Macromol. 2019;132:1200-1207.
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(22):8285-8. Biomed Res. 2007;28(2):85-90.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/vitamins-supplements/item01678/l-lysine

Magnesium

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/1/magnesium-the-overlooked-mineral Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/magnesium-healthprofessional. Accessed October 2, 2018.
  • Castiglioni S, Cazzaniga A, Albisetti W, et al. Magnesium and Osteoporosis: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Directions. Nutrients. 2013 07/31; 06/18/received; 07/14/revised; 07/22/accepted;5(8):3022-33. 
  • Grober U, Schmidt J, Kisters K. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients. 2015 Sep;7(9):8199-226. 
  • Liu G, Weinger JG, Lu ZL, et al. Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;49(4):971-90. 
  • Cole JH, Leech R, Sharp DJ. Prediction of brain age suggests accelerated atrophy after traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol. 2015 Apr;77(4):571-81. 
  • Liem F, Varoquaux G, Kynast J, et al. Predicting brain-age from multimodal imaging data captures cognitive impairment. Neuroimage. 2017 Mar 1;148:179-88. 
  • Lin L, Jin C, Fu Z, et al. Predicting healthy older adult's brain age based on structural connectivity networks using artificial neural networks. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2016 Mar;125:8-17. 
  • Luders E, Cherbuin N, Gaser C. Estimating brain age using high-resolution pattern recognition: Younger brains in long-term meditation practitioners. Neuroimage. 2016 Jul 1;134:508-13.

Melatonin

  • Pandi-Perumal SR, Srinivasan V, Maestroni GJ, et al. Melatonin: Nature’s most versatile biological signal? FEBS J. 2006 Jul;273(13):2813-38. 
  • Peuhkuri K, Sihvola N, Korpela R. Dietary factors and fluctuating levels of melatonin. Food Nutr Res. 2012;56. 
  • Vincent B. Protective roles of melatonin against the amyloid-dependent development of Alzheimer’s disease: A critical review. Pharmacol Res. 2018 Aug;134:223-37. 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/10/melatonin-brain-protecting Gu H, Shen Q, Mei D, et al. Melatonin Inhibits TE-1 Esophageal Cancer Cells Metastasis by Suppressing the NF-kappaB Signaling Pathway and Decreasing MMP-9. 
  • Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2020 Jan;50(1):65-72. https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/10/melatonin-brain-protecting 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/7/higher-dose-melatonin

Milk thistle

  • Polyak SJ, Morishima C, Lohmann V, et al. Identification of hepatoprotective flavonolignans from silymarin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 30;107(13):5995-9.
  • Saliou C, Valacchi G, Rimbach G. Assessing bioflavonoids as regulators of NF-kappa B activity and inflammatory gene expression in mammalian cells. Methods Enzymol. 2001;335:380-7.
  • Polachi N, Bai G, Li T, et al. Modulatory effects of silibinin in various cell signaling pathways against liver disorders and cancer - A comprehensive review. Eur J Med Chem. 2016 Nov 10;123: 577-95.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/1/milk-thistle-promotes-liver-detoxification

Moro orange

  • Azzini E, Giacometti J, Russo GL. Antiobesity Effects of Anthocyanins in Preclinical and Clinical Studies. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:2740364. 
  • de Lima LP, de Paula Barbosa A. A review of the lipolytic effects and the reduction of abdominal fat from bioactive compounds and moro orange extracts. Heliyon. 2021 Aug;7(8):e07695. 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/10/shed-belly-fat-mediterranean-way

MSM

  • Rizzo R, Grandolfo M, Godeas C, et al. Calcium, sulfur, and zinc distribution in normal and arthritic articular equine cartilage: a synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray emission (SRIXE) study. J Exp Zool. 1995 Sep;273(1): 82-6.
  • Murav’ev luV, Venikova MS, Pleskovskaia GN, et al. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl sulfone on a destructive process in the joints of mice with spontaneous arthritis. Patol Fziol Eksp Ter 1991 Mar-Apr;(2):37-9. [in Russian]. 
  • Lawrence RM. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM): a double-blind study of its use in degenerative arthritis. Int J of Anti-Aging Med. 1998;1:50. 
  • Usha PR, Naidu MU. Randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combination in osteoarthritis. Clinical Drug Investigation. 2004 Jun; 24(6): 353-63. 
  • Available at http://www.msm.com/PDF/ DegenerativeArthritisStudy.pdf Accessed 9-13-04. 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2004/12/qanda

Myrrh

  • J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Apr 24;270:113793. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.113793. 
  • Epub 2021 Jan 7. Review Molecules. 2019 Aug 24;24(17):3076. doi: 10.3390/molecules24173076.

NAC

  • Smaga I, Frankowska M, Filip M. N-acetylcysteine as a new prominent approach for treating psychiatric disorders. Br J Pharmacol. 2021 Jul;178(13):2569-94. 
  • Salamon S, Kramar B, Marolt TP, et al. Medical and Dietary Uses of N-Acetylcysteine. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Apr 28;8(5). 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/7/benefits-of-n-acetyl-l-cysteine 
  • Salamon S, Kramar B, Marolt TP, et al. Medical and Dietary Uses of N-Acetylcysteine. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Apr 28;8(5). 
  • Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Getting a Knack for NAC: N-Acetyl-Cysteine. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2011 Jan;8(1):10-4. 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2020/ss/protect-your-respiratory-system Kalyuzhin OV. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on mucosal immunity of respiratory tract. Ter Arkh. 2018 Apr 19;90(3):89-95. 
  • Santus P, Corsico A, Solidoro P, et al. Oxidative stress and respiratory system: pharmacological and clinical reappraisal of N-acetylcysteine. COPD. 2014 Dec;11(6):705-17. 
  • Aldini G, Altomare A, Baron G, et al. N-Acetylcysteine as an antioxidant and disulphide breaking agent: the reasons why. Free Radic Res. 2018 Jul;52(7):751-62. 
  • Zheng CH, Ahmed K, Rikitomi N, et al. The effects of S-carboxymethylcysteine and N-acetylcysteine on the adherence of Moraxella catarrhalis to human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Microbiol Immunol. 1999;43(2):107-13. 
  • Riise GC, Qvarfordt I, Larsson S, et al. Inhibitory effect of N-acetylcysteine on adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae to human oropharyngeal epithelial cells in vitro. Respiration. 2000;67(5):552-8. 
  • Cu A, Ye Q, Sarria R, et al. N-acetylcysteine inhibits TNF-alpha, sTNFR, and TGF-beta1 release by alveolar macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in vitro. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2009 Jul;26(2):147-54.

NAD+

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2018/2/anti-aging-effects-of-nad
  • Imai S. The NAD World: a new systemic regulatory network for metabolism and aging--Sirt1, systemic NAD biosynthesis, and their importance. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2009;53(2):65-74. 
  • Bonkowski MS, Sinclair DA. Slowing ageing by design: the rise of NAD+ and sirtuin-activating compounds. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2016;17(11):679-90. 
  • Imai SI. The NAD World 2.0: the importance of the inter-tissue communication mediated by NAMPT/NAD+/SIRT1 in mammalian aging and longevity control. NPJ Syst Biol Appl. 2016;2:16018. 
  • Imai SI, Guarente L. It takes two to tango: NAD+ and sirtuins in aging/longevity control. NPJ Aging Mech Dis. 2016;2:16017. Lu SP, Kato M, Lin SJ. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2009;284(25):17110-9.
  • Mouchiroud L, Houtkooper RH, Moullan N, et al. The NAD(+)/Sirtuin pathway modulates longevity through activation of mitochondrial UPR and FOXO signaling. Cell. 2013;154(2):430-41. 
  • Tsang F, James C, Kato M, et al. Reduced Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) signaling extends replicative life span by enhancing NAD+ homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2015;290(20):12753-64.

NMN

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2013/1/conference-report-ellison-medical-foundation-colloquium-on-aging
  • Funato H, Tsai AL, Willie JT, et al. Enhanced orexin receptor-2 signaling prevents diet-induced obesity and improves leptin sensitivity. Cell Metab. 2009 Jan 7;9(1):64-76.
  • Yoshino J, Mills KF, Yoon MJ, Imai S. Nicotinamide mononucleotide, a key NAD(+) intermediate, treats the pathophysiology of diet- and age-induced diabetes in mice. Cell Metab. 2011 Oct 5;14(4):528-36.
  • Imai S, Guarente L. Ten years of NAD-dependent SIR2 family deacetylases: implications for metabolic diseases. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010 May;31(5):212-20.
  • Imai S. Dissecting systemic control of metabolism and aging in the NAD World: the importance of SIRT1 and NAMPT-mediated NAD biosynthesis. FEBS Lett. 2011 Jun 6;585(11):1657-62.

Olive

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2015/4/olive-oil-offers-unique-cardiovascular-protection
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2016/9/is-your-olive-oil-counterfeit

Oregano

  • J. Agric Food Chem. 2001 Nov;49(11):5165-70. 
  • J Appl Microbiol. 2014 May;116(5):1149-63. 
  • Planta Med. 2012 Oct;78(15):1636-8. 
  • Braz J Microbiol. 2011 Oct;42(4):1616-24. 
  • Pak J Pharm Sci. 2009 Oct;22(4):421-4. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2012;64(4):297-307. 
  • Front Microbiol. 2018;9:2329. 
  • J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Mar 11;57(5):1848-53.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2020/10/oregano

Phosphatidylserine

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2018/9/extinguish-fires-of-chronic-inflammation
  • Glade MJ, Smith K. Phosphatidylserine and the human brain. Nutrition. 2015 Jun;31(6):781-6.
  • Taylor CL. Qualified health claim: final decision letter - phosphatidylserine and cognitive dysfunction and dementia. U.S. Food & Drug Administration;2003.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/1/restore-youthful-cognitive-function

Pomegranate

  • Sohrab G, Ebrahimof S, Sotoudeh G, et al. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes: a single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Mar;68(2):249-55.
  • MacRae F Linton M, Patricia G Yancey, PhD, Sean S Davies, PhD, W. Gray Jerome, PhD, Edward F Linton, MD, Wenliang L Song, MD, Amanda C Doran, PhD, MD, and Kasey C Vickers, PhD. The Role of Lipids and Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis. 2019.
  • Delgado NT, Rouver WD, Freitas-Lima LC, et al. Pomegranate Extract Enhances Endothelium-Dependent Coronary Relaxation in Isolated Perfused Hearts from Spontaneously Hypertensive Ovariectomized Rats. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:522.
  • Omar U, Aloqbi A, Yousr M, et al. Punicalagin Induce the Production of Nitric Oxide and Inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in Endothelial Cell Line EA.hy926. Universal Journal of Public Health. 2016 09/01;4(5):268-77.
  • Ulfat M, Aloqbi A, Yousr M, et al. Punicalagin Induce the Production of Nitric Oxide and Inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in Endothelial Cell Line EA.hy926. Universal Journal of Public Health. 2016 09/01;4:268-77.
  • Sahebkar A, Ferri C, Giorgini P, et al. Effects of pomegranate juice on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacol Res. 2017 Jan;115:149-61.
  • Banihani SA, Fashtaky RA, Makahleh SM, et al. Effect of fresh pomegranate juice on the level of melatonin, insulin, and fasting serum glucose in healthy individuals and people with impaired fasting glucose. Food Sci Nutr. 2020 Jan;8(1):567-74.
  • Banihani SA, Makahleh SM, El-Akawi Z, et al. Fresh pomegranate juice ameliorates insulin resistance, enhances beta-cell function, and decreases fasting serum glucose in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Res. 2014 Oct;34(10):862-7.

Potassium

  • Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010 Jan;235(1):10-22.
  • PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0174967.
  • Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Mar;290(3):R546-52.

PQQ

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/ss/pqq-aging-cells
  • Wen J, Shen J, Zhou Y, et al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone attenuates isoproterenol hydrochlorideinduced cardiac hypertrophy in AC16 cells by inhibiting the NFkappaB signaling pathway. Int J Mol Med. 2020 Mar;45(3):873-85. 
  • Wu JZ, Huang JH, Khanabdali R, et al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone enhances the resistance to oxidative stress and extends lifespan upon DAF-16 and SKN-1 activities in C. elegans. Exp Gerontol. 2016 Jul;80:43-50. 
  • Sasakura H, Moribe H, Nakano M, et al. Lifespan extension by peroxidase and dual oxidase-mediated ROS signaling through pyrroloquinoline quinone in C. elegans. J Cell Sci. 2017 Aug 1;130(15):2631-43.
  • Zhu W, Klinman JP. Biogenesis of the peptide-derived redox cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2020 Dec;59:93-103.

Prebiotics

  • J Nutr. 1995 Jun;125(6):1401-12. 
  • Nutr Res Rev. 2000 Dec;13(2):229-54.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2020/11/prebiotics-for-better-health

Probiotics

  • Culici M. Adhesion of Lactobacillus plantarum P 17630 to vaginal epithelial cells and its influence on Candida albicans adhesion. GIMMOC. 2004;VIII(1):34-41.
  • Bonetti A, Morelli L, Campominosi E, et al. Adherence of Lactobacillus plantarum P 17630 in soft-gel capsule formulation versus Doderlein’s bacillus in tablet formulation to vaginal epithelial cells. Minerva Ginecol. 2003 Jun;55(3):279-84, 84-7.
  • Montella R, Malfa P, Giuliano A, et al. Vaginal adhesion of Lactobacillus plantarum P17630 after probiotic food supplement oral administration: a preliminary in vivo study. Nutrafoods. 2013;12(2):35-42.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2014/5/probiotics-provide-vital-protection-against-chronic-disease
  • Yan F, Cao H, Cover TL, Whitehead R, Washington MK, Polk DB. Soluble proteins produced by probiotic bacteria regulate intestinal epithelial cell survival and growth. Gastroenterology. 2007 Feb;132(2):562-75.
  • Buzas GM. Probiotics in gastroenterology -- from a different angle. Orv Hetil. 2013 Feb 24;154(8):294-304.
  • Kondo J, Xiao JZ, Shirahata A, et al. Modulatory effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on defecation in elderly patients receiving enteral feeding. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr 14;19(14):2162-70.
  • Furness JB, Kunze WA, Clerc N. Nutrient tasting and signaling mechanisms in the gut. II. The intestine as a sensory organ: neural, endocrine, and immune responses. Am J Physiol. 1999 Nov;277(5 Pt 1):G922-8.
  • Hakansson A, Molin G. Gut microbiota and inflammation. Nutrients. 2011 June; 3(6):637-82.

Protein

  • Gorissen SHM, Crombag JJR, Senden JMG, et al. Protein content and amino acid composition of commercially available plant-based protein isolates. Amino Acids. 2018 Dec;50(12):1685-95.
  • van Vliet S, Burd NA, van Loon LJ. The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption. J Nutr. 2015 Sep;145(9):1981-91.
  • Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45503/. Accessed September 18, 2019.
  • Doria E, Buonocore D, Focarelli A, et al. Relationship between human aging muscle and oxidative system pathway. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:830257.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/12/protein-supplementation

  • Sime, Reeve VE. Protection from inflammation, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis induced by UV radiation in mice by topical Pycnogenol. Photochem Photobiol. 2004 Feb;79(2):193-8.
  • Ansari MA, Roberts KN, Scheff SW. Dose- and time-dependent neuroprotective effects of Pycnogenol following traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Sep 1;30(17):1542-9.
  • Neri S, Signorelli S, Pulvirenti D, et al. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide, endothelial dysfunction and tinnitus. Free Radic Res. 2006 Jun;40(6):615-8.
  • Baguley D1, McFerran D, Hall D. Tinnitus. Lancet. 2013 Nov 9;382(9904):1600-7
  • MG, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, et al. Improvement in cochlear flow with Pycnogenol(R) in patients with tinnitus: a pilot evaluation. Panminerva Med. 2010 Jun;52(2 Suppl 1):63-7.
  • Packer L, Rimbach G, Virgili F. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, Pycnogenol®. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Sep;27(5-6):704-24.
  • D’Andrea G. Pycnogenol®: a blend of procyanidins with multifaceted therapeutic applications? Fitoterapia. 2010 Oct;81(7):724-36.

Quercetin

  • Gene. 2018 Jul 20;664:50-57.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2023/2/quercetin-improves-metabolic-health
  • Shatilo VB, Antonyuk-Shcheglova IA, Naskalova SS, et al. Quercetin effect on endogenous factors of cardiovascular risk and ageing biomarkers in elderly people. Ageing and Longevity. 2022;3(2):32-40.
  • Harwood M, Danielewska-Nikiel B, Borzelleca JF, Flamm GW, Williams GM, Lines TC. A critical review of the data related to the safety of quercetin and lack of evidence of in vivo toxicity, including lack of genotoxic/carcinogenic properties. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jun 7; [Epub ahead of print]

Resveratrol

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2009/8/resveratrol- extending-life-fighting-disease
  • Biochem J. 2007 May 15;404(1):1-13.
  • Fortune. 2007 Jan 9.
  • J Med Food. 2008 Dec;11(4):610-4.
  • Genes Nutr. 2007 Dec;2(3):295-305.

R-lipoic acid

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2014/5/how-lipoic-acid-preserves-critical-mitochondrial-function
  • Available at: http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/11/3/232.pdf. Accessed February 24, 2014.
  • Smith JR, Thiagaraj HV, Seaver B, Parker KK. Differential activity of lipoic acid enantiomers in cell culture. J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(3):43-54.
  • Streeper RS, Henriksen EJ, Jacob S, Hokama JY, Fogt DL, Tritschler HJ. Differential effects of lipoic acid stereoisomers on glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jul;273(1 Pt 1):E185-91.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/1/how-lipoic-acid-reduces-body-fat

Rosemary

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/8/superfood
  • Molecules. 2018 Nov 13;23(11):2956.
  • Iran J Pharm Res. 2016 Fall;15(4):875-83.
  • Cell J. 2011 Spring;13(1):39-44.
  • Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 2012 Nov 27; 53(12):7847-54.
  • Nutrients. 2017 Sep 1;9(9):968.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2023/8/challenges-of-male-aging

Saffron

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2016/7/saffron-improves-vision-in-aging-humans 
  • Noorbala AA, Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, et al. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 28;97(2):281-4. 
  • Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, Noorbala AA, et al. Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2005 Feb;19(2):148-51. 
  • Karimi GR, Hosseinzadeh H, KHALEGH PP. Study of antidepressant effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Crocus sativus in mice. Iranian Journal Of Basic Medical Sciences. 2001;4(3):11-5. 
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/11/probiotic-solution-to-depression-and-anxiety

Selenium

  • Brozmanova J. Selenium and cancer: from prevention to treatment. Klin Onkol. 2011;24(3):171-9.
  • Naithani R. Organoselenium compounds in cancer chemoprevention. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Jun;8(7):657-68.
  • Clark LC, Combs GF, Jr., Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA. 1996 Dec 25;276(24):1957-63.
  • Ganther HE. Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Sep;20(9):1657-66.
  • Available at: https://img1.wsimg.com/blobby/go/719531d1-4d4f-427d-9915-daa0f2e0517b/downloads/Selenase%20IV.pdf?ver=1596487410147. Accessed August 4, 2020.
  • Jenkins DJA, Kitts D, Giovannucci EL, et al. Selenium, antioxidants, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Dec 10;112(6):1642-52.
  • Zimmermann T, Leonhardt H, Kersting S, Albrecht S, Range U, Eckelt U. Reduction of postoperative lymphedema after oral tumor surgery with sodium selenite. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Sep;106(3):193-203.
  • Fleet JC. Dietary selenium repletion may reduce cancer incidence in people at high risk who live in areas with low soil selenium. Nutr Rev. 1997 Jul;55(7):277-9.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2015/11/how-to-obtain-optimal-benefits-from-selenium
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/12/selenium-research-highlight

Shiitake mushroom

  • Choudhury MBK, Rahman T. Shiitake Mushroom: A Tool of Medicine. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2013 01/20;5(1):24-32.
  • Dai X, Stanilka JM, Rowe CA, et al. Consuming Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Mushrooms Daily Improves Human Immunity: A Randomized Dietary Intervention in Healthy Young Adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34(6):478-87.In cell studies shiitake extract was able to directly inactivate several types of viruses and block viral replication.18-20
  • Masterson CH, Murphy EJ, Gonzalez H, et al. Purified beta-glucans from the Shiitake mushroom ameliorates antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pulmonary sepsis. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2020 Oct;71(4):405-12.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2022/7/mushrooms-and-immune-function
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2021/7/immune-boosting-mushrooms
  • Avtonomova AV, Krasnopolskaya LM. [Antiviral properties of basidiomycetes metabolites]. Antibiot Khimioter. 2014;59(7-8):41-8. 
  • Ren G, Xu L, Lu T, et al. Structural characterization and antiviral activity of lentinan from Lentinus edodes mycelia against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Aug;115:1202-10. 
  • Rincao VP, Yamamoto KA, Ricardo NM, et al. Polysaccharide and extracts from Lentinula edodes: structural features and antiviral activity. Virol J. 2012 Feb 15;9:37. 

Taurine

  • Chupel MU, Minuzzi LG, Furtado G, et al. Exercise and taurine in inflammation, cognition, and peripheral markers of blood-brain barrier integrity in older women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.2018 Jul;43(7):733-41.
  • Azuma J, Takihara K, Awata N, et al. Beneficial effect of taurine on congestive heart failure induced by chronic aortic regurgitation in rabbits. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 45(2):261-70.
  • Ames BN. Prolonging healthy aging: Longevity vitamins and proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2018 Oct 23;115(43):10836-44.
  • Ames BN. Prolonging healthy aging: Longevity vitamins and proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2018 Oct 23;115(43):10836-44.
  • Baliou S, Adamaki M, Ioannou P, et al. Protective role of taurine against oxidative stress (Review). Mol Med Rep.2021 Aug;24(2).
  • Qaradakhi T, Gadanec LK, McSweeney KR, et al. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Taurine on Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2020 Sep 17;12(9).
  • Schaffer S, Kim HW. Effects and Mechanisms of Taurine as a Therapeutic Agent. Biomol Ther (Seoul).2018 May 1;26(3):225-41.
  • Yamori Y, Taguchi T, Hamada A, et al. Taurine in health and diseases: consistent evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies. J Biomed Sci.2010 Aug 24;17 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S6.
  • Esmaeili F, Maleki V, Kheirouri S, et al. The Effects of Taurine Supplementation on Metabolic Profiles, Pentosidine, Soluble Receptor of Advanced Glycation End Products and Methylglyoxal in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Can J Diabetes. 2021 Feb;45(1):39-46.

TMG

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2004/12/qanda
  • Olthof MR, Verhoef P. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health. Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Feb;6(1):15-22.
  • Steenge GR, Verhoef P, Katan MB. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5):1291-5.
  • Holm PI, Ueland PM, Vollset SE, et al. Betaine and folate status as cooperative determinants of plasma homocysteine in humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Feb;25(2):379-85.
  • Olthof MR, Vliet TV, Verhoef P, Zock PL, Katan MB. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans. PLoS Med. 2005 May;2(5):e135.
  • da Costa KA, Gaffney CE, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. Choline deficiency in mice and humans is associated with increased plasma homocysteine concentration after a methionine load. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):440-4.
  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2006/10/report_homocysteine

Zinc

  • https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2020/1/how-to-use-zinc-lozenges
  • Eby GA, Davis DR, Halcomb WW. Reduction in duration of common colds by zinc gluconate lozenges in a double-blind study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984 Jan;25(1):20-4. 
  • Eby GA, 3rd. Zinc lozenges as cure for the common cold--a review and hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2010 Mar;74(3):482-92. 
  • Hemila H, Fitzgerald JT, Petrus EJ, et al. Zinc Acetate Lozenges May Improve the Recovery Rate of Common Cold Patients: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017 Spring;4(2):ofx059.